Climate Trends at Eureka in the Canadian High Arctic

G. Lesins, T. J. Duck, and J. R. Drummond, Atmosphere-Ocean, 48, 59 - 80, doi: 10.3137/AO1103.2010, 2010.

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Abstract. Weather observations made at Eureka, on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic, have been archived since 1953. The time series, averages, and seasonal cycles of surface temperature, pressure, dew point, relative humidity, cloud cover, wind speed, and direction are presented for the period from 1954 to 2007. Also shown are the time series and averages for the 500 mb temperature, 900 to 500 mb thickness, 500 mb wind speed, and various boundary-layer stability parameters. Some of the main trends found are 1) an annual average surface warming of 3.2 C since 1972, with summer exhibiting the least warming, 2) a reduction in the frequency of strong anticyclonic events in the winter, 3) a reduction in surface wind speeds except in the summer, 4) a 1.0 C warming in the 500 mb temperature since 1961, with the greatest warming occurring in the spring and summer, and 5) a 10% increase in precipitable water all year round since 1961 but dominated by the spring, summer, and autumn seasons. The importance of open water in the Arctic Ocean for summer temperatures and humidity, of the North Atlantic Oscillation for winter interannual pressure variability, and of precipitable water for winter temperatures are highlighted in this climatology.

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